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台湾原住民工艺之木器 The Aboriginal Crafts of Taiwan -- Woodwork
来源: 发布时间:2017-12-20 点击次数:1931

       木器是台湾原住民文化中很重要的一部分。精心雕刻的木器见于日常生活的方方面面。小到调羹,大到船只,其装饰图样不仅展示了原住民木匠们的技艺,更让我们一瞥其精神世界。


Woodworking is am important part of the cultures of the aboriginal tribes of Taiwan. Ornately carved wooden objects were used in every facet of their daily lives, from spoons to boats. The decorative patterns that adorn them illustrate not only the skill of aboriginal woodcarvers, but also give us a glimpse into their spiritual world.


        占卜在台湾少数民族中,是一个重要的行为,狩猎、祭祀、婚姻、建屋、开垦都要占卜以问凶吉。


Augury was an important activity among the indigenous people of Taiwan. People would turn to augury before hunting, sacrifices, marriages, house-building, or opening up new land for farming. 


     

道具箱(A面)

道具箱(B面)


       道具箱,又称巫术箱是巫师用来携带祭仪用具的木箱。这只巫术箱是用整块木料刳空制作而成,顶部开口,无盖,口部结附麻线细网。正面雕双蛇及四馘首图案,有时箱的两侧及其背部亦施以雕画,较精致者,尚在其上嵌以贝壳或瓷钮,并施以红、黑两种颜色。排湾人巫师多为女巫,女巫作法时,先从木箱取出小刀、豚骨、豚脂、相思树叶,珠子等等供品,贡献给神灵,后念咒作法。巫术箱内放置的祭仪用具虽然各部落有些许不同,但差异不大。


This box is the kind of container used to hold the ritual implements for divination used by shamans. The shamans of the Paiwan people were usually women. The kind of box is carved out of a single piece of wood, with an open top and no lid, but instead a twine net covering.




       木罐通常是仿陶罐之作,陶罐在台湾少数民族的传统意识中具有神力。因此仿制陶罐的木罐除用于盛酒和贮种子外,也常用于祭祀等宗教活动。纹饰大致有百步蛇、人头、山猪、鹿等。排湾的木雕罐子多选自硬质的树木为材,将内部挖空,再刻初坯,然后整修雕纹。此罐立体雕刻排湾人的图腾百步蛇。


Wooden jars usually functioned like ceramic pots, and were believed to possess extraordinary power in the traditional cultures of Taiwan's indigenous tribes. Besides containing wine or keeping seeds, wooden jars were also used in certain religious rituals. The motifs carved on mainly depict snakes, human heads, boar and deer. The Paiwan tribe’s wooden jars are mostly made from rigid logs which were hollowed out and carved with decorations. This jar is carved with a snake motif, which is the animal totem of the Paiwan tribe.


       

        在铁器传入以前,台湾少数民族通常使用竹刀。铁器传入后则用铁制刀。匕首通常呈尖叶形,长不满尺,外有木鞘,以细藤篾编成系带,便于外出时系于腰间。此木鞘底部颜色较浅的部分和双耳即为以前缠绕藤蔑带的位置。木鞘上还浅刻了简洁的几何纹路,起到了很好的装饰效果。


Knives were usually made in the shape of a leaf, less than 33cm in length, with a wooden scabbard, and were worn around the waist using a rattan belt. The scabbard is decorated with geometric patterns. The parts with lighter color and the two ears are the places where rattan strips were wrapped.


       

       台湾土著各族除雅美人外,男女均有嗜好吸烟的习惯,因此都使用烟斗。烟斗的使用在台湾少数民族中非常普遍,一般以竹、木制成。通常以一截木头挖空当作烟碗,在碗部穿孔装上细竹管为吸管。烟斗主要以人及动物为题材,形象夸张。男女使用的烟斗略有差异:男用烟管较短,大约在10厘米左右;女用烟管较长,一般超过20厘米。此烟斗的烟管因年代久远已遗失。


Except the Tao (Yami), all the other aboriginal tribes on Taiwan have adopted the habit of smoking, and all use pipes. People usually use wood as the bowl, and bamboo as the tube. Pipes are usually decorated with motifs of people or animals. This pipe’s tube was lost before it entered the museum’s collection.




        警铃是旧时鲁凯等族群传递资讯,如今为族人的信号工具。柄部为木质饭匙状,上部圆阔,下部细长,一面刻画人面纹。铃部用铁板卷成,中悬小铁块作铃锤。平时存放在集合所(公庙),使用时绑于信使臀部,走动时自然就会敲响。


In old times, alarm bells were used by some tribes like the Rukai to send messages, while today they are still used to send signals. The wooden handle is round on top, like a spoon. These bells were tied around a messenger’s waist, ringing as they walked, or kept in the public places like temples.



       

       舟是达悟人(雅美人)十分重要的交通工具。达悟人的船是靠着一片片木板拼起来,多达27片,少则21片,但却不漏水。船底龙骨是船身最重要的中枢,达悟人特别选用台湾龙眼树,因为此种树比较高、质地坚硬,用来做龙骨船身稳定,另外船椽部分则以强度较高的树材,如面包树等。为防止碰撞,造船者还会考虑操桨人习惯,比如惯用左手或右手,在船身弧度上多有不同设计,船身造好后,在细缝中填上木棉,可防漏。从造船起到完成,靠的是一把斧头,其他工具几乎用不上,实在是一种极为难得的技术,难怪达悟人要说“没做过拼板舟的达悟男人不算是男人。”


Ships were an important mode of transportation for the Tao(Yami). Between 21 and 27 wooden boards were pieced together to form a ship’s hull. The builders used a specific kind of axes which were used only for building ships. There is a traditional Yami saying that “Wooden boat craftsmanship makes a true Yami man .”



       木勺是高山族排湾人和布农人最常用的饮食器皿之一。多用黄杨木、月橘和柳毂木制成。构造可分为柄部和勺部,有的还可分为首部。勺柄和首部多有精美的雕刻。勺部有瓜子形、圆形、椭圆形、叶形等。布农人的木匙其勺部与柄所形成的角度较小,而排湾人的角度较大。


Wooden spoon are the most common household utensils for the Paiwan and Bunun tribes. Made of boxwood (var. Buxus) or Orange Jessamine (Murraya paniculata), the spoon consists of a small shallow bowl, oval, round or in the shape of a leaf, at the end of a handle. The angle between the bowl and the handle is shallower for those made by the Bunun than for those of the Paiwan.





       狩猎曾是台湾少数民族中仅次于农业的传统生产方式。过去,各族群均有自己的猎场,彼此互不侵犯。狩猎工具主要有火枪、弓矢、圈笼、网,也有使用陷阱的。猎获物一般都平均分配,只是头与尾归猎获者所有。狩猎器具有弓箭、标枪、火药枪、刀等,弓箭猎鸟类等小型动物,枪、矛猎猛兽。


Hunting was once an important traditional part of the subsistence lifestyle for indigenous Taiwanese tribes. In the past, each tribe had their own hunting grounds, and these boundaries were respected. The main hunting weapons were match-lock guns, bows and arrows, darts, knives, nets, and sometimes traps. Each tribe distributed the game equally among its members, with the head and the tail reserved for the hunter.



火药盒


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